Oxygen isotopes reveal crustal contamination and a large, still partially molten magma chamber in Chaîne des Puys (French Massif Central)

Abstract : The two main magmatic properties associated with explosive eruptions are high viscosity of silica-rich magmas and/or high volatile contents. Magmatic processes responsible for the genesis of such magmas are differentiation through crystallization, and crustal contamination (or assimilation) as this process has the potential to enhance crystallization and add volatiles to the initial budget. In the Chaîne des Puy series (French Massif Central), silica- and H2O-rich magmas were only emitted during the most recent eruptions (ca. 6–15 ka). Here, we use in situ measurements of oxygen isotopes in zircons from two of the main trachytic eruptions from the Chaîne des Puys to track the crustal contamination component in a sequence that was previously presented as an archetypal fractional crystallization series. Zircons from Sarcoui volcano and Puy de Dôme display homogeneous oxygen isotope compositions with δ18O = 5.6 ± 0.25‰ and 5.6 ± 0.3‰, respectively, and have therefore crystallized from homogeneous melts with δ18Omelt = 7.1 ± 0.3‰. Compared to mantle derived melts resulting from pure fractional crystallization (δ18Odif.mant. = 6.4 ± 0.4‰), those δ18Omelt values are enriched in 18O and support a significant role of crustal contamination in the genesis of silica-rich melts in the Chaîne des Puys. Assimilation–fractional–crystallization models highlight that the degree of contamination was probably restricted to 5.5–9.5% with Rcrystallization/Rassimilation varying between 8 and 14. The very strong intra-site homogeneity of the isotopic data highlights that magmas were well homogenized before eruption, and consequently that crustal contamination was not the trigger of silica-rich eruptions in the Chaîne des Puys. The exceptionally strong inter-site homogeneity of the isotopic data brings to light that Sarcoui volcano and Puy de Dôme were fed by a single large magma chamber. Our results, together with recent thermo-kinetic models and an experimental simulation (Martel et al., 2013), support the existence of a large (~ 6–15 km3), still partially molten mid-crustal reservoir (10–12 km deep) that is filled with silica-rich magma.
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Article dans une revue
Lithos, Elsevier, 2016, 260, pp.328 - 338. 〈10.1016/j.lithos.2016.05.013〉
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https://hal-clermont-univ.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01637130
Contributeur : Sylvaine Jouhannel <>
Soumis le : vendredi 17 novembre 2017 - 13:09:37
Dernière modification le : mardi 29 mai 2018 - 12:50:37

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Lyderic France, Mickael Demacon, Andrey A. Gurenko, Danielle Briot. Oxygen isotopes reveal crustal contamination and a large, still partially molten magma chamber in Chaîne des Puys (French Massif Central). Lithos, Elsevier, 2016, 260, pp.328 - 338. 〈10.1016/j.lithos.2016.05.013〉. 〈hal-01637130〉

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