Etude des échanges thermiques et conception d’un système de refroidissement pour le système de lecture du trajectographe SciFi de LHCb

Abstract : In the context of the evolution of the biggest circular accelerator of particles «LHC», an important program of upgrade on all the detectors which establishes itself was thrown. Among them, we find the upgrade of the detector LHCb which includes the complete replacement of several sub-detectors. The frequency of high reading of 40MHz, an unprecedented in an experiment of physical appearance of particles, and the environment of severe radiation bound to the increase of the intensity of the LHC, are the main challenges by the new sub-detectors. The work presented in this manuscript, described as a small part of the evolution of the LHCb detector. The development and the construction of a new wide-scale tracker, based on a new technology with scintillating fiber «SciFi», read with photomultipliers to the silicon «SiPM», is one of the key projects of the LHCb upgrade program. The first part, consists in studying the thermal exchanges and designing a cooling system for every Read-Out Box «ROB» which contains two electronic front-end « FE », and which allow to read the data of the detector. The latter has a thermal dissipation about 110W. To ensure the smooth running of electronic components, it is compulsory to set up a cooler. Important constraints are taken into account in this study, the first one represents the space limited compared to the need for the cooling system, the electronic interfaces and mechanical, the second concerns the SiPM. Connected with the electronics by flexible cables, they are located near the electronics «FE» and their temperature of operation is perfectly settled around -40 ° C. Works of digital simulations on the software FloTHERM and ANSYS were led on the experimental bench realized within the laboratory, and which allowed us to determine the best adapted solution of cooling. This study also showed to us that he is more than necessity to integrate thermal interfaces «IT» such as thermal pastas to assure a better transfer of heat between electronic components and cooler. The second part, represents an in-depth study on the thermal interfaces which are a delicate point of transfer of heat, because they can have dozens percent of the global thermal resistance. To guarantee an adequate and sustainable use of these materials, several parameters were verified, in particular hardness, consistency (no production of fat or oil) and the thermal conductivity, thanks to a bench of measures adapted according to the method normalized ASTM D5470, with this bench we could measure the flow of heat through the tested thermal interface sample and which is generated by a hot source and a cold source that are mounted at the ends of our bench.With the installation CHARME (CERN) and PAVIRMA (Cézeaux), a series of measure of irradiations at the neutrons and the X-rays are also made, correspond-ing to the environment in which they will be exposed in the experience, on one side to identify the damages and the possible changes on the thermal resistances by the analysis of the thermal impedance, the other one to identify the thermal interface which suits best our application and which allows to assure an excellent thermal exchange and thus a good cooling of the frontal electronics within the trajectographe of the detector LHCb.
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Sonia Hamrat. Etude des échanges thermiques et conception d’un système de refroidissement pour le système de lecture du trajectographe SciFi de LHCb. Physique Nucléaire Expérimentale [nucl-ex]. Université Clermont Auvergne, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017CLFAC104⟩. ⟨tel-01978554⟩

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