De la Limagne à la chaîne des Puys. Approche analytique intégrative pour l’étude des végétations actuelles et potentielles en moyenne montagne tempérée

Abstract : This research project is part of the program CarHAB designed for the mapping of natural and semi-natural habitats and funded by the French Ministry of Environment. It aims at proposing 1) landscape vegetation typology and 2) a methodology to map vegetation of French low mountain range at the landscape scale, taking into account the vegetation dynamic.The study area is the Clermont-Ferrand region, in Auvergne, from the Limagne plains to the “chaîne des Puys” (Massif central, France) which is a mountainous region. It is particularly varied regarding both abiotic and biotic drivers of plant types and thereafter includes a large variety of habitats. Six main types of ecosystems were studied, over a 51 544 ha large area : an alluvial valley, a sedimentary plain, xerothermic hills, plateau and fault on crystalline rocks and mountains of the monts Dômes.The first step of this landscape approach had consisted to propose an analytical phytosociological referential, based on 5614 relevés from bibliography and ours. A descriptive catalog of the plant associations occuring over the studied area was provided. Based on those diagnostic tools, 173 associations or plant assemblages was identified in the study area.The main body of this work consists of the elaboration of a spatiotemporal predictive model of the current and potential vegetation, using the dynamico-catenal approach.The benefit of this approach, defined and discussed in this work, is that it represents three levels of organization of the vegetation, i.e. plant communities (plant association, habitat), their dynamics (serie) and their spatial organization in the landscape (geoserie). It permits to take into account the ecological variables driving vegetation patterns (tessella, catena).Following this “dynamico-catenal” analysis, 81 typological units have been found and characterized: 60 series of vegetation (23 séries, 5 sous-séries, 5 curtaséries 23 permaséries and 4 théroséries) and 21 geoseries of vegetation (14 géoséries, 3 géocurtaséries and 4 géopermaséries). Each of them is fully described in this work, in particular regarding their dynamic affinity diagrams, geographical extension, conservation state, degree of anthropisation or naturality...This work achieved several methodological issues: 1) A specific module of the VegFrance data base was established, using the Turboveg software, to store relevés at the landscape scale realized (synrelevés, géosynrelevés). 2) A predictive model of the impact of the climate change on the vegetation series was sketched, according to the objectives of the COP 21 scheme. 3) The bio-indicator values of Ellenberg were used here at several levels: taxa, plant communities and vegetation series. These data were analyzed statistically and their variability within and between vegetation series was assessed as cues for ecological variability and more generally for the naturality/anthropization of each serie.Finally a modus operandi is proposed for analyzing and mapping vegetation in similar regions, according to the objectives of the CarHAB framework.Three maps of vegetation were realized: one represents the series resulting from the analysis of the current vegetation, the second represents the geoserie of the area study. The third is a map of the series of potential vegetation which may be expected under the hypothesis of a global climate change.
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Camille Roux. De la Limagne à la chaîne des Puys. Approche analytique intégrative pour l’étude des végétations actuelles et potentielles en moyenne montagne tempérée. Ecologie, Environnement. Université Clermont Auvergne, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017CLFAC017⟩. ⟨tel-02151595⟩

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