Structure of the plumbing system at Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador: Insights from phase equilibrium experiments on July-August 2006 eruption products

Abstract : Understanding the plumbing system structure below volcanoes and the storage conditions (temperature, pressure, volatile content and oxygen fugacity) of erupted magmas is of paramount importance for eruption forecasting and understanding of the factors controlling eruptive dynamics. Phase equilibria experiments have been performed on a Tungurahua andesite (Ecuador) to shed light on the magmatic conditions that lead to the July-August 2006 eruptions and the parameters that controlled the eruptive dynamics. Crystallization experiments were performed on a representative August 2006 mafic andesite product between 950-1025ºC, at 100, 200 and 400 MPa and NNO+1 and +2, and water mole fractions in the fluid (XH2O) from 0.3 to 1 (water-saturation). Comparison of the natural phenocryst assemblage, proportions and phenocryst compositions with our experimental data indicates that the natural andesite experienced two levels of ponding prior to the eruption. During the first step, the magma was stored at 400 MPa (15-16 km), 1000ºC, and contained ca. 6 wt % dissolved H2O. In the second step, the magma rose to a confining pressure of 200 MPa (8-10 km), where subsequent cooling (down to 975ºC) and water-degassing of the magma led to the crystallization of reversely zoned rims on pre-existing phenocrysts. The combination of these processes induced oxidation of the system and overpressure of the reservoir, triggering the July 2006 eruption. The injection of a new, hot, volatile-rich andesitic magma from 15-16 km into the 200 MPa reservoir shortly before the eruption, was responsible for the August 2006 explosive event. Our results highlight the complexity of the Tungurahua plumbing system in which different magmatic reservoirs can co-exist and interact in time and are the main controlling factors of the eruptive dynamics.
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Article dans une revue
Journal of Petrology, Oxford University Press (OUP), 2017, <10.1093/petrology/egx054>
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Joan Andújar, Caroline Martel, Michel Pichavant, Pablo Samaniego, Bruno Scaillet, et al.. Structure of the plumbing system at Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador: Insights from phase equilibrium experiments on July-August 2006 eruption products. Journal of Petrology, Oxford University Press (OUP), 2017, <10.1093/petrology/egx054>. <insu-01583929>

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