La fabrique médiatique de l'événement au XIXe siècle : Jules Vallès, écrire et faire l'histoire (1857-1870)

Abstract : The work of Jules Vallès falls within the confluence of history, literature and the media in an exemplary way. It sustains a narrow proximity to the upheavals of its time. It thus appears to present an ideal outlook from which to analyse the way of writing the event. Yet, apart from the Paris Commune, the event as such has been overlooked by Vallesian critics. Between 1857 and 1870, that is to say during the Second French Empire, what exactly constitutes an event in the fullest sense of the word for Vallès? Far beyond the historical dates generally deemed important, how does his vision of what makes or does not make an event lead him to reshape the history of his time?Assuming a deliberate perspective of demystification, the “major event” and the “notable factˮ are firstly considered cultural artefacts, both repudiated but also partly reproduced by Vallesian writing. And yet, far from being only an artificial construction – a historical, literary and/or media illusion – the event can be a real and concrete upheaval. Therefore, it can be defined by a destructive impact, its creative strength at the heart of everyday life, or by a fruitful virulence which would be the prerogative of language. Vallès, thus questions the ambiguity that characterizes the violence of his time, depending on whether his contemporaries react against it or reinvest it through verbal or artistic means. But the events turn out to be even more a metonymic tool serving a heuristic method that explores the history of the 19th century. Personally (re)lived, they structure a self-portrait of the writer-journalist in chiaroscuro. They thereby enable the reporter to testify on present events to the reader, resolutely committed to the experiences related. Finally, by induction they reveal a difficult and unfair society: thereby a militant history takes shape, shifting and subverting the common hierarchies, and explaining and reassessing the accepted structures.
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Celine Léger. La fabrique médiatique de l'événement au XIXe siècle : Jules Vallès, écrire et faire l'histoire (1857-1870). Linguistique. Université de Lyon, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LYSES034⟩. ⟨tel-01870298⟩

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